“It is quite common to hear high officials in Washington and elsewhere speak of changing the map of the Middle East, as if ancient societies and myriad peoples can be shaken up like so many peanuts in a jar.”

― Edward W. Said

"A developing country that wants to develop its economy must first of all keep natural resources in its own hands."
- Deng Xiaoping

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

A Cyborg Manifesto by Donna Haraway - Reviewed by Tugrul Keskin

A Cyborg Manifesto by Donna Haraway

Reviewed by Tugrul Keskin 

Contemporary Political Theory-5214 Journal 12, November 18 2004

In her book, A Cyborg Manifesto, Donna Haraway argues that there has been an erosion of boundaries between the human and non-human and this new form in the stage of human development is called 'cyborg.' According to Haraway, Cyborg is part machine and part human.  According to her, today we are all cyborg. Additionally, in everyday life we are becoming more and more cyborg. In her book, She furthermore states that everyday we use more machines than before, and this new environment causes us to relate better to machine life than to human beings.  The end point of this process is that human behavior cannot be distinguished from that of machines. Walkmans, computers, cell phones, ipods, palm pilots, and other machines transform us into different human life in which the boundary between the physical and nonphysical are disappearing. This new
environment generates a new identity to the individual, and the machine we use suits our identity.  Her other important point in the book is that, “the idea of a Cyborg is intimately related to central postmodern/post structural concerns like communication, language, the code and writing.”[1]  For Haraway, the use of communication is a key element for today’s daily life.
Additionally, Donna Haraway’s illustration of the cyborg somehow relates us to our current life and relations to the machine/computer world. More technological advancements create an environment in which we, as human beings, associate ourselves with machines. The new environment has produced a human robot.  According to a national study, people who use more machines and computers, spend less time with friends and family members. This is the postmodern environment that has been created by human beings, and humans have
become slaves of his own creation. In this new social world, what predominates is something that Haraway describes as situated knowledge, a knowledge itself
that is transformed into some type of power and that generates its own dynamics
in the context of control over the society as well as the individual.
Identity is another important issue in her theory. In this new computerized
world, the machine we use becomes a part of our identity. We cannot disassociate
ourselves from the machine or computer. Cyborg is also a human identity.  To my
understanding of Haraway, her feminist perspective reminds us of Lyotard's view,
in which Lyotard stresses the importance of the technological impact on knowledge.  On the other hand, Haraway elaborates the identity of the human in a computerized society and the relationship between human and machine. In contrast to Lyotard, Haraway concentrates more on the individual level and feminism

Arguably, Haraway attempts to illustrate the idea of objectivity in the academic
world and furthermore argues that the objectivity of science impacts science
itself in a negative way. Haraway claims that, “objectivity is not about
dis-engagement, but about mutual and usually unequal structuring, about taking
risks in a world where 'we' are permanently mortal, that is, not in 'final'
According to the author, scientific objectivity helps us to
understand our social world as well as science.

In short, Haraway’s understanding of the social world is very much related with
the computerized environment.  Disagreeably, Haraway’s understanding of feminist
theory is based upon the biological differences between men and women.
Additionally, I do not believe that either scientific problems or the problems
that we are facing today have nothing to do with biological differences but are
rather related with economic inequalities and economic insecurities.

[1] Ritzer, George. Postmodern Social Theory. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill, 1997, 193.
[2] Haraway, 199.

Artificial Intelligence and International Relations

Extra credits for the class, please use the following format:

·      Title of your essay - Please use a title that explains your research question! 
·      Your full name - don’t forget to add your full name!
·      Your research question (at least 100 words) what is your argument?
·      Literature Review (at least 300 words) what other people say?
·      Explaining your argument (at least 500 words) what do you say/what is your contribution?
·      Conclusion (at least 100 words) what is the future projection of Artificial Intelligence and International Relations, based on your research question?
·      Bibliography/ References
Email me your paper by Monday March 12: tugrulkeskin@t.shu.edu.cn
You will receive Up To 10 Points for your final grade!


1.     What is Artificial Intelligence?
2.     What is Artificial Intelligence Exactly?
3.     How Will Artificial Intelligence Affect Your Life | Jeff Dean | TEDxLA
4.     Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
5.     Davos 2018: Google CEO Sundar Pichai on A.I., Cybersecurity, Tax


Artificial Intelligence and National Security   
Greg Allen Taniel Chan
Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School | July 2017 
Project Overview
Partially autonomous and intelligent systems have been used in military technology since at least the Second World War, but advances in machine learning and Artificial Intelligence (AI) represent a turning point in the use of automation in warfare. Though the United States military and intelligence communities are planning for expanded use of AI across their portfolios, many of the most transformative applications of AI have not yet been addressed.
In this piece, we propose three goals for developing future policy on AI and national security: preserving U.S. technological leadership, supporting peaceful and commercial use, and mitigating catastrophic risk. By looking at four prior cases of transformative military technology—nuclear, aerospace, cyber, and biotech—we develop lessons learned and recommendations for national security policy toward AI.

Artificial Intelligence and the Military
Robert W. Button
RAND - September 7, 2017 
The Department of Defense (DoD) is increasingly interested in Artificial Intelligence (AI). During a recent trip to Amazon, Google, and other Silicon Valley companies, Secretary of Defense James Mattis remarked that AI has “got to be better integrated by the DoD.” What do we mean by the term AI? In particular, what does “deep learning” mean? What are the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of using AI? What are potential additional military applications for AI? What Is AI?  AI is poorly understood in part because its definition is constantly evolving. As computers master additional tasks previously thought only possible by humans, the bar for what is considered “intelligent” rises higher. Recently, one of the most productive areas in the field of AI has been in technologies that can train software to learn and think on its own. This area is moving swiftly and appears to be accelerating. Simultaneously, “old school” AI using rule-based approaches are being abandoned. In the next decades, AI systems that can be trained, learn, and think independently will likely dominate the field of AI. This brings us to deep learning, a field that has made tremendous strides in recent years and generated considerable excitement.

Artificial Intelligence and International Politics
Valerie M. Hudson
For over a decade researchers in international relations have sought ways to combine the rigor of quantitative techniques with the richness of qualitative data. Many have discovered that artificial intelligence computer models allow them to do just that. This is an overview of their research.

Political Science in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
Ronny Patz
Political science, probably like many other social sciences, seems stuck in an age that many of our students have never lived, and will never live. Our students live in an age of Artificial Intelligence
(AI) and of problems that are far beyond local borders in a world dominated by thinking within borders.  In this age, it is time to work together on a global scale and to develop the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for political science. This political science LHC would build on the recent developments in machine learning, deep learning, neural networks, and bring together thousands of political scientists and academics from other disciplines to start understanding political dynamics at a planetary scale.  I use the “LHC” as metaphor for an endeavour where large-scale collaboration of people of diverse backgrounds,  use of new technologies, and fast and open science come together with one purpose: to understand and provide ideas for a world that is evolving so fast that our local political systems and global institutions cannot follow suit unless political science evolves at the speed of society and technology.

Artificial Intelligence: Applications and Implications for International Security
17 Jul 2015 - 14:00 to 15:30
Discussions about the future of artificial intelligence (AI), whether philosophical or popular, tend to view artificial intelligence as distinct from, and a potential threat to, human intelligence. But the potential applications for AI in assisting the human decision-making process on international financial, political and military issues have gone underexamined. These issues are often discussed in highly technical terms, the substance of which is inaccessible to non-expert communities, including business leaders, policy-makers and the majority of the public. This event, jointly hosted by the US Project and the International Security Department, will allow researchers and policy-makers to explore areas of common concern as these technologies become increasingly integrated into decision-making structures.

Artificial Intelligence and International Politics Gaming
By Charles L. Mitchell
Attempts to evaluate the international situation have for some time appreciated the  potential of international politics games for improving perceptions of political reality.   Usually in the past, international politics games resembled ordinary board games with  persons representing various international entities contending as adversaries.  In a few  situations, international politics games were developed that involved substantial amounts  of role-playing among the protagonists.  Whether the international politics game situation  was game board oriented or based on role-playing instructions and simulations, the  technique encouraged developing one's imagination about the difficulties of the  international entity being played.

Artificial Intelligence and Formal Models of International Behavior
Philip A. Schrodt
The American Sociologist Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring, 1988), pp. 71-85 
During the past five years, models and techniques developed in artificial intelligence (AI) have been applied to a wide variety of topics in international relations (IR). These applications build on a theoretical base established at MIT during the 1970s, and the expansion of the applications reflects both changes in AI research and limitations of alternative models such as statistical modeling and rational choice approaches. Current applications in IR/AI tend to fall into three categories. First, there have been extensive applications of if-then rules in expert systems and simulations. Second, many models emphasize the role of historical precedent in IR decision making. Third, a variety of approaches employing natural language are under development. These AI techniques have extended considerably the range and complexity of formal models of international behavior.

Beyond a Human Framework of International Relations
Brett Daniel Shehadey
Diplomaticourier - February 18, 2013 
The Information Revolution is quickly transitioning into an Augmented Technological Revolution. The previous ways that humanity interfaces with the world are being replaced with revolutionary mobile platforms. This has profound implications for the international system over the next few decades. Both the way it will soon operate and the autonomy of advanced artificial intelligence will create new dimensions beyond strictly human interactions.  Augmented Reality (AR) is presently extending the Information Age a step further. AR is defined as the real-time digital enhancement of reality. This is currently being accomplished through software applications using cell phones, digital goggles, GPS, video cameras, sensors, microphones, CPU, internet and digital voice assistance in real-time. One’s reality is instantly enhanced by literally adding a digital, or artificial, layer of reality.

Artificial Intelligence on the Front Lines
Thom Dixon
Australian Institute of International Affairs - 03 Jan 2017
Autonomous technologies are rapidly advancing in multiple industries; from transport to manufacturing, artificial intelligence is gaining steam. Military AI, however, faces a unique set of challenges: the lethal capabilities of drones pose moral, ethical, and legal questions. How does the international community regulate the use of AI in conflicts?  Lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS)—better known as killer robots—do not exist yet, but as the Open Letter from AI and Robotics Researchers points out, even their prospective existence is of great concern. But the concern about the new weapons systems may be misguided because it does not encompass the threat posed by the artificial intelligence (AI) programs behind their operation. International efforts to ban LAWS have been side-tracked by the concept of killer robots, when it is the intelligence of the robots that is the real issue.

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence is transforming every aspect of our lives, from the way we work to the way we shop and socialize. This technology has the potential to deliver incredible benefits to society, increasing efficiency, improving safety and quality of life, transforming health care, and delivering new capabilities that we cannot even imagine. How can we manage the risks, disruptions and fears of artificial intelligence to maximize its benefits to our economy and society?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) And Global Geopolitics
Artificial Intelligence (AI), a top priority for the ubiquitous American tech companies, for Industry 4.0 or digital China, is already reshaping global business, but this major scientific and technological disruption will also deeply impact the relations between powers.  While narrow AI has moved from the labs to our daily lives, informed personalities like Stephen Hawking, Nick Bostrom, Bill Gates or Elon Musk have rightly raised concerns about the risks inherent to a strong AI capable of equaling or even surpassing human intelligence.

Renaud Barbat and Alexandre Dagiste
Since the end of the Cold war and the collapse of the USSR, many phenomena have to be taken into account. First is the multiplication of players of various kinds, sometimes referred as “transnational” because they are not restricted by States’ boundaries – non - governmental organisations, financial players, international organisations as well as criminal players such as “mafias”, etc.  Second, interrelations between these different types of protagonists keep on growing and, as such, these relations become more and more complex, thus harder to model and comprehend. The third phenomenon lays in the intertwin ing of different fields together – economics, social, politics, environmental, finance, etc – intertwining that reinforces the notion of globalisation.  With the artificial intelligent technology Globe Expert, the latter concept implies the necessity to tackle political events and major mutations of the 21 st century in a global way, mixing both local and regional scales analyses and also economic, social and political ones.  In so doing, Globe Expert uses transversality and multidisciplinarity as tools of a g lobal approach, represented by concepts such as fuzzy logic, entropy, or neuronal/behavioural models, all coming from mathematics, biology and many more fields.

Monday, February 19, 2018

What makes a good life? Lessons from the longest study on happiness | Robert Waldinger

Oxford Digital Diplomacy Research Group

The Oxford Digital Diplomacy Research Group is an academic collaborative project that aims to further the study and practice of digital diplomacy.
The group is led by Professor Corneliu Bjola (University of Oxford) working together with Jennifer Cassidy (DPhil candidate, University of Oxford) and Ilan Manor (DPhil candidate, University of Oxford).
The group holds regular talks, workshops and public events with members of the diplomatic community in London and Europe.


Thursday, February 15, 2018

Empire of Guns: The Violent Making of the Industrial Revolution By Priya Satia

Empire of Guns: The Violent Making of the Industrial Revolution

By Priya Satia

Penguin Random House - 2018

We have long understood the Industrial Revolution as a triumphant story of innovation and technology. Empire of Guns, a rich and ambitious new book by award-winning historian Priya Satia, upends this conventional wisdom by placing war and Britain’s prosperous gun trade at the heart of the Industrial Revolution and the state’s imperial expansion. Satia brings to life this bustling industrial society with the story of a scandal: Samuel Galton of Birmingham, one of Britain’s most prominent gunmakers, has been condemned by his fellow Quakers, who argue that his profession violates the society’s pacifist principles. In his fervent self-defense, Galton argues that the state’s heavy reliance on industry for all of its war needs means that every member of the British industrial economy is implicated in Britain’s near-constant state of war.  Empire of Guns uses the story of Galton and the gun trade, from Birmingham to the outermost edges of the British empire, to illuminate the nation’s emergence as a global superpower, the roots of the state’s role in economic development, and the origins of our era’s debates about gun control and the “military-industrial complex” — that thorny partnership of government, the economy, and the military. Through Satia’s eyes, we acquire a radically new understanding of this critical historical moment and all that followed from it. Sweeping in its scope and entirely original in its approach, Empire of Guns is a masterful new work of history — a rigorous historical argument with a human story at its heart.

Technological Forms and Ecological Communication: A Theoretical Heuristic by Piyush Mathur

Technological Forms and Ecological Communication: A Theoretical Heuristic

by Piyush Mathur 

Lexington Books - 2017

Investigating the phenomena of technology, science, technique, and mass communication, Piyush Mathur contends that the enterprise of science communication may be misleading vis-à-vis technology—if in part because it frequently coextends with a flawed, but dominant, notion of science that presumptuously implicates technology anyway. Grappling with what authentically constitutes science and the prospective effects of its realization on a global future of mass communication, Mathur explores how various technological forms play specifically into ecologically sensitive mass communication. The result is an eco-communicative theory of technology that includes its classification based upon a set of qualitative principles and a profile of the notion of development. On the whole, though, Technological Forms and Ecological Communication: A Theoretical Heuristic brings the fields of philosophy and history of science, philosophy and sociology of technology, communication studies, and development studies into conversation with one another.

Monday, February 5, 2018

Shanghai University Graduate School Accepting Applications for MA and PHD

Application Guide2018上海大学国学生学金申指南
Guide for Scholarship Application 2018


Shanghai University Introduction (2008)

Sunday, February 4, 2018

Cfp: The 1st International Conference on “China and the South Asia” November 24-25, 2018 Shanghai University

The 1st International Conference on “China and the South Asia”

November 24-25, 2018 Shanghai University
College of Liberal Arts, Center for Global Studies and Center for South Asian Studies
Shanghai, China

As China goes global, South Asia and Indian Ocean is posit to play important roles in China’s economic and security environment. Vibrant and emerging democracies, growing economies and home to major religions of the world, South Asia juxtapose culture, economy and politics. Regional connectivity and development plan offers substantive benefit to the regions but it is also changing the status quo and new makeover. Regional cooperative mechanism is relatively weak and internal rivalry lure great powers to play decisive role. China’s influence in the region is growing, the US is trying to maintain status-quo and India is rising to go beyond the region as well protecting its interests in the region. In this context, the conference aims to bring Chinese and International scholars to discuss and debate various issues concerning China and South Asia to build a harmonious region paving the way for Asian Century.  Conference proceeding will be published in the edited book or in a special issue of a reputed and referred journal. Papers are invited, but not limited to, on following topics. 

1. China and South Asia: Historical Connections
2. Connectivity and Development
3. Religion, Society and Culture
4. Changing Dynamics in South Asia
5. Belt and Road Initiative 
6. Populism and Politics in South Asia
7. Rising Nationalism
8. Globalization and Asia
9. Emerging Security Order
10. Energy Security
11. Ethnicity, Gender and Migration
12. Environment and Sustainable Development
13. Media
14. Regional and International Organisations
15. CivilSociety 

The deadline for submitting abstract is April 30, 2018. Accepted proposals will be notified by May 30, 2018 and full draft papers will be due by July 31, 2018. Please send 200-300 words abstract and brief bio as an email attachment to Rajiv Ranjan (rajivranjan@i.shu.edu.cn).

Registration Fee: There is no registration fee for the conference. Lodging & Boarding: Organiser will cover lodging & boarding expenses during the conference. Organising Committee:  
Prof. Guo Changgang, Shanghai University, China  
Prof. Zhang Yong-an, Shanghai University
Prof. Wang Sanyi, Shanghai University
Prof. Jiang Shixue, Shanghai University
Prof. Zhang Shulan, Shandong University
Prof. Srikanth Kondapalli, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
Prof. Pradeep Taneja, University of Melbourne, Australia
Dr. Rajiv Ranjan, Shanghai University
Dr. Amjad Abbas Khan Magsi, University of Punjab, Lahore
Dr. Liu Yi, Shanghai University  
Dr. Yang Chen, Shanghai University, China
Dr. Wu Hao, Shanghai University
Dr. Chen Hao, Shanghai University, China
Dr. Tugrul Keskin, Shanghai University, China
Dr. Zhang Kun, Shanghai University

Organized by Center for Global Studies, Center for South Asian Studies, College of Liberal Arts, Shanghai University, People’s Republic of China Contact details: Dr. Rajiv Ranjan, Assistant Professor Shanghai University, College of Liberal Arts, East Campus, Graduate School Building, Room No. 403B, Baoshan Nanchen Road, 333, Shanghai, China-200444
Mr. Qasim Sodhar, PhD Candidate & Research Assistant, Centre for South Asian Studies, Shanghai University, Email: qasim_shu2016@yahoo.com     
Important Dates: Last Date for abstract: Notification of Acceptance Full Draft Paper: 30 April 2018 31 May 2018 31 July 2018 Letter for Visa: Conference: Final paper: 15 September 2018 24-25 November 2018 25 December 2018

Monday, January 29, 2018

Global and Regional Development (WEEK -10, Wednesday January 31): Readings, Newspaper articles, Presentation and Documentaries

Dear all,

For the Week 10TH, you should read the following chapters before you come to the class:

·      Conclusion (Ian Hurd)
·      Emergence, development and future trajectories of Civil Society and NGOs By Tugrul Keskin
·      Peace-building and Violence against Women: Tracking the Ruling Relations of Aid in a Women's Development NGO in Kyrgyzstan - Elena Kim and Marie Campbell (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)
·      Alignment and Autonomy: Food Systems in Canada - Brewster Kneen (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)
The Future of American Power and Influence
White Man's Burden

This week, we will have two presentations on Wednesday. YOU SHOULD PREPARE POWER POINTS and EMAIL IT TO ME A DAY BEFORE THE CLASS.

·      Peace-building and Violence against Women: Tracking the Ruling Relations of Aid in a Women's
·      Development NGO in Kyrgyzstan - Elena Kim and Marie Campbell (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)
·      Conclusion (Ian Hurd)
·      Alignment and Autonomy: Food Systems in Canada - Brewster Kneen (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE PRESENTATION: Please bring RECENT newspaper articles. Articles SHOULD BE related with NGOs and Colorful; Revolutions in Eurasia. Other subjects will not be accepted. PLEASE VERY BRIEFLY SUMMARIZE YOUR ARTICLE IN THE CLASS!  

If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Best to all,


Sunday, January 28, 2018

Movies about Aborigines

CHARLIE'S COUNTRY Trailer | 2014

The Tracker - Trailer (2002)

Ten Canoes - Trailer 

Thursday, January 25, 2018

Global and Regional Development (WEEK -9, Monday January 29 (17:00-20:00): Reflection Paper-3, Readings, Newspaper articles, Presentation and Documentaries

Dear all,

For the Week 9TH, you should read the following chapters before you come to the class:

·      Regional organizations: EU, AU and ASEAN (Ian Hurd)
·      Disaster Relief, NGO-led Humanitarianism and the Reconfiguration of Spatial Relations in Tamil Nadu - Raja Swamy (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)
·      Seven Theses on Neobalkanism and NGOization in Transitional Serbia - Tamara Vukov (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)

Europe: From WWII To Today's European Union 
African Union: Questioning the legacy
History of the ASEAN

This week, we will have four presentations on Monday. YOU SHOULD PREPARE POWER POINTS and EMAIL IT TO ME A DAY BEFORE THE CLASS.

·      The International Criminal Court (Ian Hurd)
·      Conclusion: American Politics and the War of Ideas (Kubilay Yado Arin)
·      From Radical Movement to Conservative NGO and Back Again? A Case Study of the Democratic Left (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor) Front in South Africa - Luke Sinwell (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)
·      Philippine NGOs: Defusing Dissent, Spurring Change - Sonny Africa (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)
·      Regional organizations: EU, AU and ASEAN (Ian Hurd)
·      Disaster Relief, NGO-led Humanitarianism and the Reconfiguration of Spatial Relations in Tamil Nadu - Raja Swamy (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)
·      Seven Theses on Neobalkanism and NGOization in Transitional Serbia - Tamara Vukov (Aziz Choudry and Dip Kapoor)

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE PRESENTATION: Please bring RECENT newspaper articles. Articles SHOULD BE related with EUROPEAN UNION OR ASEAN. Other subjects will not be accepted. PLEASE VERY BRIEFLY SUMMARIZE YOUR ARTICLE IN THE CLASS!  


Please read the following instructions carefully:

In this reflection paper, you have four questions. Please answer them all!

1.     Based on the class discussions and readings (Does Israel Need Think Tanks? by Hannah Elka Meyers and the Israel Lobby John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt), do you think the Israeli lobby in the US contradicts or complements US National Security Interests ?Briefly explain your response, and give specific examples from the articles. Your answer should be at least 300 words in length.

2.     Based on the class discussion and readings (Kubilay Yado), please compare the differences and similarities between the Clinton Administration and the Bush Administration in terms of think-tank policies inside the beltway. Which of these presidential terms is more neoliberal/market-oriented? Clearly and briefly explain your perspective, and give specific examples from class readings. Your answer should be at least 300 words.

3.     Based on your readings, what are the basic obligations, and area of compliance and enforcement of the International Court of Justice? Briefly explain and give specific examples from the readings. Your answer should be at least 300 words.

4.     Based on your readings, what are the basic obligations, and area of compliance and enforcement of the International Labor Organization? Briefly explain and give specific examples from the readings. Your answer should be at least 300 words.

In your answer, please do not use citation, use your own words, and do not copy from the Internet, the books conclusion, or from Wikipedia. 

Email your paper to me as MS Word attachments by 11:59 Midnight, on Monday, February 5th PLEASE include THINK-TANKS AND NGOs – Reflection Paper 3 in the subject line of your email, and send it to tugrulkeskin@t.shu.edu.cn
Criteria: If your paper is less than 1200 words, or late, you will loose 4 points.     

If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Best to all,